Treatment Outcome Studies

Studies that examined more than one outcome may be listed in more than one category. For an overview of all MDFT randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and their associated publications, click here.


Drug & Alcohol Use

Van der pol, T. M., Machteld, H., Noom, M. J., Stams, G. J. M., Doreleijers, T. A. H., van Domburgh, L., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M. (2017). Research review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems – a meta-analysisJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(5), 532-545. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12685

Van der Pol, T. M., Henderson, C. E., Hendriks, V., Schaub, M. P., & Rigter, H. (2017). Multidimensional Family Therapy reduces self-reported criminality among adolescents with a cannabis use disorder. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0306624X16687536

Greenbaum, P. E., Wang, W., Henderson, C. E., Kan, L., Hall, K., Dakof, G. A., & Liddle, H. A. (2015). Gender and ethnicity as moderators: Integrative data analysis of Multidimensional Family Therapy randomized clinical trials. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(6), 919-930. doi:10.1037/fam0000127

Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C., Rowe, C. L., Boustani, M., Greenbaum, P. E., Wang, W.,... Liddle H. A. (2015). A randomized clinical trial of family therapy in juvenile drug courtJournal of Family Psychology, 29(2), 232-241. doi: 10.1037/fam0000053

Rigter, H., Henderson, C., Pelc, I., Tossmann, P., Phan, O., Hendriks, V., ... Rowe, C. L. (2013). Multidimensional Family Therapy lowers the rate of cannabis dependence in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial in Western European outpatient settings. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.10.013

Hendriks, V. van der Schee, E., Blanken, P. (2012). Matching adolescents with a cannabis use disorder to multidimensional family therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy: Treatment effect moderators in a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125(1-2), 119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.03.023

Hendriks, V., van der Schee, E., Blanken, P. (2011). Treatment of adolescents with a cannabis use disorder: Main findings of a randomized controlled trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in The Netherlands. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 64-71. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.05.021

Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., Greenbaum, P., & Liddle, H. A. (2010). Effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy with higher-severity substance abusing adolescents: Report from two randomized controlled trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 885-897. doi: 10.1037/a0020620

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. & Greenbaum, P. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/a0014160

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Turner, R. M., Henderson, C. E., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2008). Treating adolescent drug abuse: A randomized trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Addiction, 103, 1660-1670. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02274.x

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Gonzalez, A., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2006). Changing provider practices, program environment, and improving outcomes by transporting Multidimensional Family Therapy to an adolescent drug treatment setting. American Journal on Addictions, 15, 102-112. doi: 10.1080/10550490601003698

Dennis, M., Godley, S. H., Diamond, G., Tims, F. M., Babor, T., Donaldson, J.,…Funk, R. (2004). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: Main findings from two randomized trialsJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27(3), 197-213.

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Ungaro, R. A. (2004). Early intervention for adolescent substance abuse: Pretreatment to posttreatment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and peer group treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2004.10399723

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Parker, K., Diamond, G. S., Barrett, K., & Tejeda, M. (2001). Multidimensional Family Therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(4), 651-688.


 Delinquency and Externalizing Problems

Hoogeveen, C. E., Vogelvang, B., Rigter, H. (2017). Feasibility of inpatient and outpatient Multidimensional Family Therapy for improving behavioral outcomes in adolescents referred to residential youth care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 34, 61-82. doi: 10.1080/0886571X.2016.1268945

Van der pol, T. M., Machteld, H., Noom, M. J., Stams, G. J. M., Doreleijers, T. A. H., van Domburgh, L., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M. (2017). Research review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems – a meta-analysisJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(5), 532-545. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12685

Van der Pol, T. M., Henderson, C. E., Hendriks, V., Schaub, M. P., & Rigter, H. (2017). Multidimensional Family Therapy reduces self-reported criminality among adolescents with a cannabis use disorder. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0306624X16687536

Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C., Rowe, C. L., Boustani, M., Greenbaum, P. E., Wang, W.,... Liddle H. A. (2015). A randomized clinical trial of family therapy in juvenile drug courtJournal of Family Psychology, 29(2), 232-241. doi: 10.1037/fam0000053

Schaub, M. P., Henderson, C. E., Pelc, I., Tossmann, P., Phan, O., Hendriks, V., ... Rigter, H. (2014). Multidimensional Family Therapy decreases the rate of externalising behavioural disorder symptoms in cannabis abusing adolescents: Outcomes of the INCANT trialBMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 26.

Hendriks, V., van der Schee, E., Blanken, P. (2011). Treatment of adolescents with a cannabis use disorder: Main findings of a randomized controlled trial comparing multidimensional family therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy in The Netherlands. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 119(1-2), 64-71. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.05.021

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. & Greenbaum, P. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/a0014160

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Gonzalez, A., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2006). Changing provider practices, program environment, and improving outcomes by transporting Multidimensional Family Therapy to an adolescent drug treatment setting. American Journal on Addictions, 15, 102-112. doi: 10.1080/10550490601003698

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Ungaro, R. A. (2004). Early intervention for adolescent substance abuse: Pretreatment to posttreatment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and peer group treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2004.10399723

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Parker, K., Diamond, G. S., Barrett, K., & Tejeda, M. (2001). Multidimensional Family Therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(4), 651-688.


 Mental Health

Van der pol, T. M., Machteld, H., Noom, M. J., Stams, G. J. M., Doreleijers, T. A. H., van Domburgh, L., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M. (2017). Research review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems – a meta-analysisJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(5), 532-545. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12685

Hendriks, V. van der Schee, E., Blanken, P. (2012). Matching adolescents with a cannabis use disorder to multidimensional family therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy: Treatment effect moderators in a randomized controlled trial. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125(1-2), 119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.03.023

Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., Greenbaum, P., & Liddle, H. A. (2010). Effectiveness of Multidimensional Family Therapy with higher-severity substance abusing adolescents: Report from two randomized controlled trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 885-897. doi: 10.1037/a0020620

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. & Greenbaum, P. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/a0014160

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Gonzalez, A., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2006). Changing provider practices, program environment, and improving outcomes by transporting Multidimensional Family Therapy to an adolescent drug treatment setting. American Journal on Addictions, 15, 102-112. doi: 10.1080/10550490601003698

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Ungaro, R. A. (2004). Early intervention for adolescent substance abuse: Pretreatment to posttreatment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and peer group treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2004.10399723

Rowe, C. L., Liddle, H. A., Greenbaum, P., & Henderson, C. E. (2004). Impact of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment outcomes of adolescent drug abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 26(2), 129-140. doi: 10.1016/S0740-5672(03)00166-1


 Family Functioning

Hoogeveen, C. E., Vogelvang, B., Rigter, H. (2017). Feasibility of inpatient and outpatient Multidimensional Family Therapy for improving behavioral outcomes in adolescents referred to residential youth care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 34, 61-82.

Van der pol, T. M., Machteld, H., Noom, M. J., Stams, G. J. M., Doreleijers, T. A. H., van Domburgh, L., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M. (2017). Research review: The effectiveness of multidimensional family therapy in treating adolescents with multiple behavior problems – a meta-analysisJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58(5), 532-545. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12685

Henderson, C. E., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Hawes, S. W., & Liddle, H. A. (2009). Parenting practices as mediators of treatment effects in an early-intervention trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35, 220-226. doi: 10.1080/00952990903005890

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. & Greenbaum, P. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/a0014160

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Ungaro, R. A. (2004). Early intervention for adolescent substance abuse: Pretreatment to posttreatment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and peer group treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2004.10399723

Hogue, A., Liddle, H. A., Becker, D., & Johnson-Leckrone, J. (2002). Family-based prevention counseling for high-risk young adolescents: Immediate outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 1-22. doi: 10.1002/jcop.1047

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Parker, K., Diamond, G. S., Barrett, K., & Tejeda, M. (2001). Multidimensional Family Therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(4), 651-688.

Schmidt, S. E., Liddle, H. A., & Dakof, G. A. (1996). Changes in parenting practices and adolescent drug abuse during Multidimensional Family Therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 12-27. doi: 10.1037/0893-3200.10.1.12


 Sexual Health

Rowe, C. L., Alberga, L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. E., Ungaro, R., & Liddle, H. A. (2016). Family-based HIV and sexually transmitted infection risk reduction for drug-involved young offenders: 42-month outcomes. Family Process, 55(2), 305-320. doi: 10.1111/famp.12206

Marvel, F. A., Rowe, C. R., Colon, L., DiClemente, R., & Liddle, H. A. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention: An integrative family-based model for drug-involved juvenile offenders. Family Process, 48, 69-83.


 School

Hoogeveen, C. E., Vogelvang, B., Rigter, H. (2017). Feasibility of inpatient and outpatient Multidimensional Family Therapy for improving behavioral outcomes in adolescents referred to residential youth care. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 34, 61-82.

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Dakof, G. A., Henderson, C. & Greenbaum, P. (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: Twelve month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1), 12-25. doi: 10.1037/a0014160

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Ungaro, R. A. (2004). Early intervention for adolescent substance abuse: Pretreatment to posttreatment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial comparing Multidimensional Family Therapy and peer group treatment. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 36(1), 49-63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2004.10399723

Hogue, A., Liddle, H. A., Becker, D., & Johnson-Leckrone, J. (2002). Family-based prevention counseling for high-risk young adolescents: Immediate outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 1-22. doi: 10.1002/jcop.1047

Liddle, H. A., Dakof, G. A., Parker, K., Diamond, G. S., Barrett, K., & Tejeda, M. (2001). Multidimensional Family Therapy for adolescent drug abuse: Results of a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(4), 651-688.


Out-of-Home Placements

Liddle, H. A., Rowe, C. L., Gonzalez, A., Henderson, C. E., Dakof, G. A., & Greenbaum, P. E. (2006). Changing provider practices, program environment, and improving outcomes by transporting Multidimensional Family Therapy to an adolescent drug treatment setting. American Journal on Addictions, 15, 102-112. doi: 10.1080/10550490601003698


 Research Reviews on Family-Based Treatments that Include MDFT

Steinka-Fry, K. T., Tanner-Smith, E. E., Dakof, G. A., & Henderson, C. (2017). Culturally sensitive substance use treatment for racial/ethnic minority youth: A meta-analytic reviewJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 75, 22-37. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2017.01.006

Wozny, D. A., Hall, K., & Porter, J. Y. (2016). Review of randomized controlled trials in adolescent cannabis use treatment: A counseling practitioner’s summary (Article 94). VISTAS Online. American Counseling Association Knowledge Center.

Carr, A. (2016). Family therapy for adolescents: A research-informed perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 37, 467-479. doi:10.1002/anzf.1184

Boustani, M., Henderson, C. E., & Liddle, H. A. (2016). Family-based treatments for adolescent substance abuse: Advances yield new developmental challenges. In Sandra A. Brown & Robert A. Zucker (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Adolescent Substance Abuse. London: Oxford University Press.

Lopez-Zeron, G. A., & Parra-Cardona, J. R. (2015). Elements of change across community-based trauma interventions. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 34, 60- 76.

EMCDDA (2014). Multidimensional Family Therapy for adolescent drug users: A systemic review. EMCDDA Thematic Paper, Faggiano, F., Molinar, R.. et al., (authors) Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg

Rowe, C. L. (2012). Family therapy for drug abuse: Review and updates 2003-2010. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38(1), 221-243. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00280 (en espaƱol)

Tripodi, S. J., Bender, K., Litschge, C., & Vaughn, M. G. (2010). Interventions for reducing adolescent alcohol abuse: A meta-analytic review. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(1), 85-91. doi: 10-1001/archpediatircs.2009.235.

Drug and Alcohol Findings (2009). Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: twelve-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial.

Hawkins, E. H. (2009). A tale of two systems: Co-occurring mental health and substance abuse disorders treatment for adolescents. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 197-227. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163456

Becker, S. J., & Curry, J. F. (2008). Outpatient interventions for adolescent substance abuse: A quality of evidence reviewJournal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(4), 531-543. http://psycnet.api.org/doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.4.531

Huey, S., & Polo, A. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for ethnic minority youth: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 262-301. doi: 10.1080/15374410701820174

Perepletchikova, F., Krystal, J. H., & Kaufman, J. (2008). Practitioner review: Adolescent alcohol use disorders: Assessment and treatment issues. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 49 (11), 1131-1154. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01934.x

Waldron, H. B., & Turner, C. W. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 238-261.

Austin, A. M., Macgowan, M. J., & Wagner, E. F. (2005). Effective family-based interventions for adolescents with substance use problems: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 15(2), 67-83. doi: 10.1177/1049731504291606

Thompson, S. J., Pomeroy, E. C., & Gober, K. (2005). Family-based treatment models targeting substance use and high-risk behaviors among adolescents: A review. Journal of Evidence Based Social Work, 2(1-2), 207-233. doi: 10.1300/J394v02n01_12

Brannigan, R., Schackman, B. R., Falco, M., & Millman, R. B. (2004). The quality of highly regarded adolescent substance abuse treatment programs: Results of an in-depth national survey. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 158(9), 904-909. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.158.9.904

Vaughn, M. G., & Howard, M. O. (2004). Adolescent substance abuse treatment: A synthesis of controlled evaluations. Research on Social Work Practices, 14(5), 325-335. doi: 10.1177/1049731504265834.

Drug and Alcohol Findings. (2002). Holistic therapy preferable for troubled teensDrug and Alcohol Findings Magazine, 7, 13.